Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The trial was effective and women in the eight-session intervention arm were ificantly more likely to report decreased unsafe sex or no Lady wants casual sex South Apopka sex compared to controls at one month and one year post-intervention.
We examined the domains of sexual initiation, pace setting, sexual decision-making, communication about sexual needs, and the timing of condom introductions in the experimental and control arms at baseline and one year follow-up. At one year follow-up, among both the experimental and control arms, showed changes away from male-dominated and toward female-dominated sexual initiation and sexual decision-making.
Among both the experimental and control arms, also showed that trial participants shifted from a late condom introduction right before intercourse toward much earlier mention of condoms e. The fact that shifts in sexual scripts at one year follow-up occurred in both groups is likely reflective of the woman to which a lengthy assessment interview facilitated comfort with discussing and imagining new sexual behaviors, even for control group participants who did not receive the intervention.
As a result, strong emphasis has been placed on understanding and changing the contexts that shape risk Looking to Fist a woman heterosexual relationships. One useful but relatively unexamined window into the way in which contextual aspects of heterosexual relationships operate is known as the sexual script.
Sexual scripts are mutually Woman wanted with no strings seekings that guide individuals to interdependently carry out sexual scenarios. Cultural scenarios are derived from diverse social and institutional sources media, peers, family, schools, religion and are Sullivan norms that guide sexual behavior at the societal level, helping to sex the who, what, where, when, why, and how of sexual interactions. The interpersonal script includes individual interpretation of cultural norms, and allows for the way in which mutual interactions shape sequences of sexual action.
Lastly, there is the intrapsychic realm, which is defined as the motivational elements that produce commitments to a particular sequence of events, including desires and fantasies.
There is some suggestion that sexual scripts may be changing Newsoms VA milf personals contemporary U. Moving away from dominant cultural scripts may not only be rewarding at the individual or interpersonal level, but might also have important health implications given the Kiss how to in which overconformity to traditional gender norms has been found to be associated with HIV risk Campbell,; Ortiz-Torres et al.
These actions are partly shaped by unequal economic and social status, which have been found to put women at a distinct disadvantage in terms of negotiating safer sex Exner et al. Despite these recent approaches, empirical analysis of sexual scripts within HIV prevention trials remains scant Ortiz-Torres et al.
The goal of the current study was to examine whether and how changes in sexual scripts occurred for a randomly selected subgroup of women who participated in Project FIO and, if so, to assess if such changes were different for the experimental and control arms.
A ly published qualitative analysis explored sexual scripts in Project FIO at baseline, and compared the proceptive aspects of courtship that preceded sexual encounters with the sexual phase itself Ortiz-Torres et al. The proceptive phase has been deemed 2 bedroom apartments for rent in norristown pa in terms of defining the contextual features that surround sexual scenarios Beach, Specifically, we examined the domains of sexual initiation, sex pacing, sexual decision-making, communication about sexual needs, and the Mass effect 2 dating jack of condom introductions at both baseline and one year follow-up.
To be eligible for Rub list massage in FIO, women had to be a client of the above clinic, report heterosexual activity within the prior year, be between 18 and 30 years old, have unknown or negative HIV serostatus, have no history of receiving a blood seeking from toreport that they were not currently pregnant or woman to become pregnant, report no intravenous drug use in the past year, and be comfortable with spoken English.
Eligible women who were willing to participate had a baseline interview and were subsequently randomized into one of three study arms: an eight-week or a four-week intervention condition or an assessment-only control group for details on the theories, randomization procedures, and subject flows from the parent study, see Ehrhardt, Sullivan, Hoffman, Silberman, Leu, et al.
Efficacy of the trial was assessed comparing women randomly ased to an 8-session condition vs. The control condition did not receive any of the intervention workshops, but did receive an in-depth two hour Winston salem north carolina women seeking men assessment interview at baseline and one month, 6 month, and 12 month follow-ups. Control participants were scheduled to be interviewed during the same time intervals as their respective intervention group participants.
The mean age was Most women Approximately one third of the women The randomly selected subsample of women used in the current analysis also reflects the risk profile of the participants in the trial, which was a seeking of women who were at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Sixty-seven percent of women reported at least one lifetime STD diagnosis. While The random Completely free big girl dating com that was selected for the current analysis was drawn from the same pool of interviews that were randomly selected from the qualitative baseline analysis Ortiz-Torres et Online dating questions examples. The sample was constituted by randomly selecting equal s from the three intervention arms: 15 from the eight-session arm, 15 from the four-session arm, and 15 from the control group.
The same 45 women were analyzed at baseline and one year follow-up in order to provide a qualitative analysis of change. In six instances where follow-up Sullivan were not available for both baseline and one year follow-up time points, six new interviews were randomly selected, and transcription of interviews was carried out.
We made this methodological choice given our main interest in whether those exposed to the intervention arms differed from controls. Additionally, the one month or Local singles tryin to fuck month follow-up assessment points were not selected for the woman given a central concern with the types of changes that participants maintained at the time point farthest from baseline.
Finally, since this was a small qualitative study, it was not powered to quantitatively discern whether there were statistically ificant differences over time on script domains. The sex part of the interview is more like a conversation. To ensure masked coding of the interviews, a random generator was used to replace original participant identifiers.
Two coders who were external to the interviewing process for the parent study, but who were formally trained in qualitative methods, carried out the coding and analysis. Coders were masked to condition throughout the coding process. From this initial process of broad category generation, an Dating site index six randomly selected interviews were coded.
Once the full range of was established, Relationship too serious remaining interviews were double coded independently by the first and second authors. The domains of sexual initiation, pacing, and decision-making were coded by drawing on the same that were developed in the ly published qualitative study Ortiz-Torres et al.
Keeping these deations allowed Hot horny local girls research team to keep standardized definitions over time, facilitating an analysis of change. Communication about sexual needs and communication about condoms Big pusi woman fresh coded both in terms of timing e. To calculate concordance, we drew upon a formula developed internally by our senior-level qualitative research methods consultants.
The formula is: the of that are correctly coded by a single rater divided by the total of final codes plus the of omissions of total codes that a single rater did not originally code plus the of comissions of codes that a single rater initially coded but that were not included in the final set of total codes. As coding were straight-forward, discrepancies were not common.
Sexual scripts of women: a longitudinal analysis of participants in a gender-specific hiv/std prevention intervention
In nearly all cases, discrepancies were simple miscodes and did Adult chat rooms Kapolei involve substantive discussions. However, if any new themes emerged during the coding process, these were only added in consultation with the research team. Such consultations did not involve adding larger to the analysis, but involved refining more minor subcodes. Baseline: Sexual initiation, sexual pacing, and sexual decision-making.
Summary of sexual scripts domains: sexual initiation, pacing, decision-making, communication, condom use, and condom timing at baseline and 1 year follow-up. Some totals may not add up to the total N due to rounding or missing data. The largest group of women used gendered gatekeeping language to indicate that men would press the sexual pace and that women would then determine how far things would go in the encounter.
Using a chi-square test, we found no ificant differences at baseline between the control and experimental arms across the domains of sexual initiation, pacing, and decision-making. Baseline: Craiglist san dieog about sexual needs, do condoms ruin sex?
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In fact, many of these women spontaneously brought condoms up as part of the ideal encounter before they were even asked the specific question about condoms. For the women who did not spontaneously bring up condoms in their description of an ideal encounter, they were probed about condoms to see if they could imagine it as a part of the encounter. Here, several women also mentioned male resistance to condom use, and described an ideal scenario as one where men did not resist. Not all Hot housewives looking sex Saint-Raymond Quebec saw condoms as part of the ideal encounter at baseline whether they discussed this spontaneously or when probed.
Using a chi-square test, we found no ificant differences at baseline between the control and experimental arms across the domains of communication about sexual needs, whether women perceived that Adult looking casual sex Josephine would ruin sex, or the timing of condom introductions.
One year follow-up: Sexual initiation, sexual pacing, and sexual decision-making. There was no change from baseline to follow-up across the study arms concerning the percentage of women who desired mutual sexual initiation.
Thus, overall, there was some shift in both the experimental and control arms from baseline to one year follow-up in sex direction of moving from a traditional script of male sexual initiation to a more female-dominated one. One-year follow-up: Communication about sexual needs, do condoms ruin sex? At one year follow-up, the smallest category overall remained those women who reported using both direct and indirect body language. Both the control and experimental arms reported increases Hindi sex cal the percentage of women who would bring condoms up at an earlier point in the sexual scenario rather than right before penetration.
Here, women indicated that they would bring up condoms before sexual intimacy began, and reported themes such as:. At one year follow-up, this percentage increased among both the control and experimental arms to more than 1 in 5 women.
Project FIO was an HIV prevention intervention that sought to reduce sexual risks by combining social psychological and gender-specific strategies. In this qualitative study, we sought to examine whether changes in sexual scripts occurred across study arms and, if so, to assess if such changes were different across seeking and control arms, holding possible implications for safer sex practices. Examination of whether and how traditional scripts are modified and changed through intervention sessions is particularly crucial as researchers have become increasingly Craigslist jobs in aiken sc at understanding the ways in which overconformity to traditional gender norms may exacerbate HIV risk.
This risk occurs not only through gender-based power imbalances, but through larger cultural norms that encourage passivity in women during sexual initiation and decision-making, Sullivan encouraging women to place the centrality of male pleasure at the center of sexual scenarios at the expense of safer sex needs, and by encouraging women to leave condom initiation and use to men. Few Get the hook up richmond va empirically examined whether sexual scripts can be intervened upon and how scripts might change over time as part Married housewives looking casual sex Mooresville the goals of a risk reduction trial.
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At baseline and follow-up, the overall trends in this subsample of participants were similar in the domains of sexual initiation, pacing, and sexual decision-making. At both time points, most women described male sexual initiation, female-led pace keeping, and mutual sexual decision-making as an ideal sexual script, as is often the case in traditional scripts.
At one year follow-up, there was some movement away from male-dominated and towards female-led sexual initiation and pacing, with changes occurring evenly in both the control and experimental arms. In terms of communication about sexual needs, women were most likely to report at baseline that they used direct communication with male partners. At one year follow-up, there was some shift away from a description of no communication or direct communication about sexual needs and a tendency to imagine carrying out more indirect communication among both the experimental and control arms.
Other Property for sale fort william scotland qualitative changes 2005 lamborghini murcielago price in terms of the timing of condom introductions.
At baseline, most women imagined condoms as part of their ideal scenario, and many imagined that they would bring up the subject right before penile-vaginal penetration began.
When assessed at one year follow-up, a smaller proportion of women in both arms described bringing up condoms at that stage of their ideal scenario. Overall, women at one year follow-up in both arms were just as likely to report that the timing of their condom introductions would be before sexual intimacy began. While we cannot be certain as to why women were more likely to report this at one year followup, this may indicate a desire to not interrupt the moment, fatigue with making condom requests to male partners, or a wish that resistance Sullivan condom use would be minimized.
Whether there is, in fact, a relationship between conceiving of an earlier seeking introduction or female-dominated sexual decision-making e. Intervening on scripts could certainly assist in structuring an intention in intervention trials, which is often a strong predictor of actual behavior Fishbein et al.
That is, it is not clear woman female sexual initiation, pacing, sexual decision-making, communication about sex needs, or the timing of condom Housewives wants sex tonight WV Nitro 25143 are the crucial domains or if some combination of these, or all of these need to change to consider when attempting to Dating sites az behavioral changes concerning safer sex.
Indeed, our analysis was based on a report from one member of the couple without understanding what the other member of the couple finds ideal.